Re-Thinking Tourism

for a Planet in Crisis

volunteering knowledge exchange and creating development




 1. intended or serving to educate or enlighten; educational


educational, instructive, instructional, informative, informational, illuminating, pedagogic, doctrinal, preceptive, enlightening, edifying, improving, didactic, heuristic; pedantic, moralistic, homiletic


to educate: give intellectual, moral, and social instruction to (someone), typically at a school or university provide or pay for instruction for (one’s child), especially at a school give (someone) training in or information on a particular subject


teach, school, tutor, instruct, coach, train, upskill, drill, prime, prepare, guide, inform, enlighten, edify, cultivate


develop, inculcate, indoctrinate, improve, better, uplift, elevate




1. not relating to or concerned with the process of educating, informinng or the field of education as a whole



impractical, unhelpful, unusable, useless


unenlightening, unilluminating, uninformative, uninstructive

unenlightened, uneducated, unknowledgeable, untaught, unlearned, unread, ignorant

2. ignorant lacking knowledge or awareness in general; uneducated or unsophisticated lacking knowledge, information, or awareness about a particular thing


uneducated, unknowledgeable, untaught, unschooled, untutored, untrained, illiterate, unlettered, unlearned, unread, uninformed, unenlightened, unscholarly, unqualified, benighted, backward


inexperienced, unworldly, unsophisticated; unintelligent, stupid, simple, empty- headed, mindless



Explicit vs tacit knowledge
Eno Schmidt _ Oblique Strategies
Fuller, Buckminster, Education Automatio
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Allen, Felicity, Education (Whitechapel
Freire, Paulo, Pedagogy of the Oppressed
Technical vs cognitive dimensions of lea
Institut fuer Raumexperimente
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WhatsApp Image 2020-05-07 at 11.30.24
Dewey, John, Experience and Education (F
Choi, Binna, Krauss, Annette, van der He
Educational tourism b
John Dewey - Experience & Education b
Bauhaus - Curriculum Scheme
European Commission, A Memorandum on Lif
Sacchetti, Vera, Botha, Nadine, Design a

through which means does learning take place?

Freire, Paulo, Pedagogy of the Oppressed
Pedagogy of the Oppressed
Paulo Freire

This book emphasizes the necessity of human freedom by inspecting the role of pedagogy in the world of systematic poverty. Freire encourages the development of a critical consciousness, particularly relevant in the context of global warming.

“Knowledge emerges only through invention and re-invention, through the restless, impatient, continuing, hopeful inquiry human beings pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other.”
- Paulo Freire
p. 56

Bloom's taxonomy of learning
Benjamin Bloom

This diagram consists of three hierarchical models that break down learning objectives into complexity and specificity. The three learning objectives are covering cognitive, affective and sensory areas. The primary focus of most traditional education is the cognitive domain list and is frequently used to structure curriculum learning objectives, assessments and activities. The models were named after Benjamin Bloom. a hierarchical structure learning

Bauhaus Lehrplan
Walter Gropius

This theory, developed in 1922 by Walter Gropius, presents an ideal scheme for the architectural training at the Bauhaus. In the educational model, "construction" was at the center at all activities, supplemented by experimentation in color, shape and material.

…as the inter-relation of cross-disciplinary thinking and production

Neri-Oxman_A P-image.jpg
Technical vs cognitive dimensions of learning

The book is suggesting values for practicing art and design research by using participatory strategies. It  showcases 6 key methods; intervention, play, performative mapping, modelling in dialog, curating

…as tangible and non-tangible forms of learning

Technical vs cognitive dimensions of lea

how can the traditional models of education adapt to contemporary contexts?

Brian Eno video on his work process
Brian Eno
Video 2017

This video shows Spencer Kelly from BBC Click interviewing Brian Eno to learn about the history behind the well-known Oblique Strategies cards, which are used by artists to cure creative block.

…by stimulating creativity through random instructions

Brian Eno

This concept encourages to actively experience and get inspired by artworks.

…as research and understanding through production and iteration

eno__artworks as triggers.jpg
Allen, Felicity, Education (Whitechapel
Felicity Allen
Whitechapel Gallery

This book is a compilation of writings examining the role of art in the field of education and questioning what should be taught in practice. Inter alia Allen discusses the idea of ‘indiscipline’, the pedagogy as medium and the function of art school in future and past.


“Art education's regulatory systems often run counter to one's motivation to learn about and practise art; to the fact that an intellectual subject can be explored through personal, emotional and tactile behaviours and that, intrinsically, it involves the frustrations and pleasures of fumbling in the dark.”

- Felicity Allen
p. 20
Playgrounds • Aldo van Eyck • Amsterdam, Netherlands • between 1947 and 1978

This project consists of public playgrounds designed all over the city of Amsterdam after WWII. The tools provided for play and the possible ‘affordances’, or possible actions, make them particularly interesting and innovative.

…by the research and understanding of the interrelation between play

Ice Watch • Olafur Eliasson and Minik Rosing • Tate Modern, London, UK • 2014, 2018

This project allows people in the city of London, in front of the Tate Modern, to directly come into contact with melting arctic ice. Newly formed icebergs were fished and transported to the City centre, for each block the same amount of energy was used as the amount required for one person to travel to the Arctic circle and back to witness the melting ice.

…by offering a tangible, sensorial experience of normally intangible or incomprehensive data

fuller, buckminster, r. buckminster full
R. Buckminster Fuller on education
Buckminster Fuller
University of Massachusetts Press

This book is a collection of lectures and essays in which Buckminster Fuller shows his concern that the education system is not fully utilising the potential of the educated.

“If I ran a school, I’d give the average grade to the ones who gave me all the right answers, for being good parrots. I’d give the top grades to those who made a lot of mistakes and told me about them, and then told me what they learned from them.”
- Buckminster Fuller
p. 170

where do tensions lie between education and the institution?

Illich, Ivan, Deschooling Society (Mario
Deschooling Society
Ivan Illich
Marion Boyars Publishers

This book questions the establishment of school as a public service and points out the flaws of institutionalising values. It creates a direct link between transforming non material needs into commodities and physical pollution.

“Deschooling society can heighten the opportunity for each one to transform each moment of his living into one of learning, sharing and caring.”

- Ivan Illich

p. 107

Tacit vs explicit knowledge

This concept follows the idea that tacit knowledge includes insights, intuitions whilst explicit knowledge includes knowledge codified and digitized in books, reports, documents. Consequently, explicit knowledge is already codified and tacit knowledge is embedded in the mind.

…as a dichotomy between knowledge of facts and intuition

Explicit vs tacit knowledge.jpg
Black Mountain College • John Andrew Rice, Theodore Dreier • North Carolina, USA • 1933-57

This project, Black Mountain College, is a school that experimented and tested alternative ways of living, connecting and living with each other and ourselves. Their aim being to question and push its own boundaries and helping design to evolve.

…by the implementation of art-based learning and experimentation through intuition

choi, binna, krauss, annette, van der he
Unlearning Exercises: Art Organizations as Sites for Unlearning
Binna Choi, Annette Krauss, Yolande van der Heide

This book searches for a process of unlearning and relearning skills and habits which can be a useful tool to stimulate knowledge gain and can be adopted in many contexts (e.g. institutional). It tries to confront issues of collective authorship, cooperation and equality.


“[...] find ways of questioning and reworking one’s assumptions, prejudices, and histories in order to tackle injustices in a globalised world. In other words, unlearning is less about acquiring new skills and knowledge and more about taking on an active critical investigation or normative structures and practices in order to become aware and get rid of taken-for-granted “truths” of theory and practice with the aim to think and work inequalities in everyday life. This notion of unlearning, hence, directs our attention to habits again.”
- Binna Choi and
Yolande van der Heide
p. 171

what role does uncertainty have in the process of learning?

Institute für Raumexperimente • Olafur Eliasson, Christina Werner, Eric Ellingsen • Berlin, Germany • since 2009

This project has been building a methodological model for alternatives in art education. This is to be seen as an activator and cultural catalyst, for the rest of the world.

…by curating experimental learning experiences through uncertainty

Seven points towards a new kind of school
Brett Steele
Lecuture at University of Applied Arts Vienna

This list expresses new fundamental concepts for an innovative and effective educational system.

…as a form of travel which emphasizes knowledge transfer

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how can interdisciplinarity be incorporated into systems of education?

Dewey, John, Experience and Education (F
Experience and Education
John Dewey
Free Press

This book examines ideas of traditional and progressive education. It strives toward a qualitative educational experience by including social experience and interaction into the learning process.

“Give the pupils something to do, not something to learn; and the doing is of such a nature as to demand thinking; learning naturally results.”
- John Dewey
p. 67
Experience and education diagram
John Dewey

This diagram shows how past experiences, external and internal conditions (class experiences) all can contribute to growth and the shaping of future experiences.

…as progressive education through experience and learning by doing

John Dewey - Experience & Education
AA visiting school • Brett Steele, Architectural Association • Since 2008

This project is organized by affiliates of the Architectural Association and develops in different locations globally. Each of these sub-projects focuses on a different subject and with a different approach.


…as progressive education through experience and learning by doing

Educational tourism diagram
Al Shwayat, M.

This diagram illustrates the different values coming together in the concept of educational tourism and its different typologies.

 …as a form of travel which emphasizes knowledge transfer 

Educational tourism b.jpg
The Grand Tour.jpg
The Grand Tour • Europe • 17th & 18th Century

The Grand Tour was a custom of the 17th and 18th Century in which upper-class young men would take a traditional trip around Europe. This was the only opportunity to view specific works of art and possibly the only chance to hear certain music. This educational right of passage exposed young men to the cultural legacy of classical antiquity and the renaissance. At the time this tour was seen as one of the highest forms of education, showing the importance that physical experiences and travel had in education.

…as a form of travel which emphasizes knowledge transfer

A Memorandum on lifelong learning
Commision of the European Communities

This argument presented by the Commission of the European Communities expresses how Europe has entered the new Era of Knowledge. Europe should therefore innovate not only the education system but also focus to implement lifelong learning at every stage, individual to institutional, and grant every citizen the same opportunity to knowledge.

European Commission, A Memorandum on Lif
sacchetti, vera, botha, nadine, design a
Design as Learning: A School of Schools Reader
Jan Boelen, Vera Sacchetti and Nadine Botha

This book deliberates the duty of design based on interviews and writings. In a world full of unstable economic, ecological, political, conditions there are many reasons to critically explore the importance of design and the education practice.

"Everything and everywhere is school, and every single interaction we have with a design is pedagogical. The machine has been teaching us how to behave like computers since the calculator, our objects have shaped our rituals since we have made the first primordial tool, our teachers and thinkers have quantified and ranked every element of coexistence since the first currency."
- Jan Boelen,
Nadine Bothda, Vera Sacchetti
p. 46

case studies:


further aspects of educative characteristics identified in the above case study:

Observational Learning

Receiving information on the Open Patios and the booklets in Moray that help understanding the experience in Kacllaraccay. Taking a tour on the installation and reading the map helps navigating through the village and the different patios.

Participatory Learning

Interacting with the locals after guided tour, exchanging knowledge and searching for a Patio

Learning by doing

Learning through participation in the Patio’s specific workshop. 


further aspects of educative characteristics identified in the above case study:

Observational learning


Research about the topic and museum orientation.

Participatory learning


Tour around the museum, interaction between visitors, making new contacts and sharing information. Getting familiar with the activities in museum by visiting different activity stations.

Learning by doing




Taking part in a specific activity such as drawing, writing and theatre workshop and finally in sleepover as individual/collective experience.


further aspects of educative characteristics identified in the above case study:

Observational learning

Making sense of the location through observing the installation, signs and man-made landscape

Participatory learning

Wandering around and taking part in the parade, the visitor is able to exchange knowledge through engaging with the locals

Learning by doing



The experience gives the visitor the opportunity to fully emerge in the context.


extracted patterns:

Observational learning:


Participatory learning:


Development of new knowledge:


Knowledge is transfered through observation of a local context and furthered through research

An exchange of knowledge is fostered through interaction and involvement between the users and their context.

Through co-creation new forms of knowledge flourish and create development.