Re-Thinking Tourism

for a Planet in Crisis

progressive, adding new values and creating fresh potentials

new values



 1. having the ability to create or design new things or to think originally


2. showing creativity or original thought



the action of inventing something, typically a process or device


creative, innovational, innovative, imaginative, fertile, ingenious, resourceful; artistic, inspired, gifted, talented, virtuoso, accomplished, masterly, skillful, clever


original, innovative, unusual, fresh, novel, new


experimental, offbeat, quirky, avant garde, forward- looking, groundbreaking; unfamiliar, unorthodox, unconventional, alternative



1. based on or in accordance with what is generally done or believed


2. (of a person) greatly or overly concerned with what is generally held to be socially acceptable


3. (of a work of art or literature) following traditional forms and genres


4. (of weapons or power) non-nuclear


5. (of a bid) intended to convey a particular meaning according to an agreed convention


orthodox, traditional, established, accepted, received, mainstream, prevailing, prevalent, accustomed, customary


generic, normal, standard, regular, ordinary, usual, traditional, typical, common


conservative, traditional, traditionalist, conformist, bourgeois, old-fashioned, of the old school; formal, correct, proper, decorous, staid


small-town, suburban, parochial, narrow-minded


run-of-the-mill, prosaic, pedestrian, commonplace, unimaginative, uninspired, uninspiring, unadventurous, unremarkable, unexceptional


unoriginal, derivative, formulaic, predictable, stock, hackneyed, clichéd, stereotypical, stereotyped, trite, platitudinous


Atelier Luma _ The Algae Platform
02__The enterpreneural state
04__Homo deus
01__Invention vs innovation
03__Not just fixing failures
WhatsApp Image 2020-05-07 at 11.30.24
05__This changes everything
08__Radical technologies
09__Internet of things
10__Big Data Challenge
Feeding the World
Growing pavilion 1
11__AI superpowers
12__Tourism 4.0
14__End of work
13__Society 5.0
18__Gross ideas
19__But Beautiful

how can small-scale design influence large-scale systemic change?

Creativity, Invention, Innovation

This graphic distinguishes between the three terms creativity, invention and innovation and simultaneously interrelates them.

…as the creation of something new, based on necessity

Invention vs innovation.jpg
mazzucato, mariana, the entrepreneurial
The Entrepreneurial State
Mariana Mazzucato
Anthem Press

This book is a series of case studies within which investments in the private and public sector are compared. Mazzucato inspects the role of state in a healthy economy, pointing out the high-risk factor of state investments where profits are privatised.

“Addressing today’s societal challenges, for example, those around climate change, require a vision, a mission and, most of all, confidence about what the State’s role in the economy is. As eloquently argued by Keynes in The End of Laissez Faire (1926, 46), ‘The important thing for Government is not to do things which individuals are doing already, and to do them a little better or a little worse; but to do those things which at present are not done at all’. This, however, requires the public sector to have vision and confidence—increasingly missing today.”
- Naomi, Klein
p. 459
From Market Fixing to market-Creating
Mariana Mazzucato

This diagram challenges the problem fixing approach to public policy. Mazzucato argues that public policies must aim to create systems, rather than just fixing system failures.

…as a digital network of existing inventions, applied to everyday life

Screenshot 2020-05-03 at 00.05.15.png

how can invention lead to the envisioning of alternative futures?

Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow
Yuval Noah Harari
Harvill Secker

This book, subsequent to Sapiens: A Brief History of Mankind, turns towards the future of the human species through a comprehensive exploration into science, history and philosophy. Harari addresses the fundamental questions of modernity through an array of preexisting theories, speculating the various ways the ambitions of happiness, immortality and God-like powers might be realised in the future based on the past and present.


“Each and every one of us has been born into a given historical reality, ruled by particular norms and values, and managed by a unique economic and political system. We take this reality for granted, thinking it is natural, inevitable and immutable. We forget that our world was created by an accidental chain of events, and that history shaped not only our technology, politics and society, but also our thoughts, fears and dreams. The cold hand of the past emerges from the grave of our ancestors, grips us by the neck and directs our gaze towards a single future. We have felt that grip from the moment we were born, so we assume that it is a natural and inescapable part of who we are. Therefore we seldom try to shake ourselves free, and envision alternative futures.”
- Yuval Noah Harari
p. 59
klein, naomi, this changes everything (s
This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
Naomi Klein
Simon & Schuster

This book rethinks social values with various topics such as climate inequality and discusses possible improvements. The importance of climate change is highlighted as an issue demanding concerted action.

“So climate change does not need some shiny new movement that will magically succeed where others failed. Rather, as the farthest-reaching crisis created by the extractivist worldview, and one that puts humanity on a firm and unyielding deadline, climate change can be the force—the grand push—that will bring together all of these still living movements. ... Climate change is our chance to right those festering wrongs at last—the unfinished business of liberation.”
- Naomi Klein
p. 459
Feeding the World.jpg
Feeding the World: A Challenge for the Twenty-First Century
Vaclav Smil
MIT Press

This book takes a realistic look at how the expanding population can be fed through changing society in certain ways. Uniquely, this book takes a  look at the complete food cycle, and shows how a more effective use of our resources in addition to behavioural change could make feeding the future of humanity possible.

“The world is into a new era when the proverbial pie stops growing and, inevitably, the question of how the constant, or even shrinking, pie is to be divided assumes great prominence.”
- Vaclav Smil
R. Buckminster Fuller: Pattern-Thinking
Daniel López-Pérez
Lars Müller Publishers

This book takes a fresh look at the work of Buckminster Fuller, following the unique process between the physical and conceptual dimensions of design. Fuller’s political and multidisciplinary perspective expands the knowledge base of contemporary design models.

“Fuller’s concept of ‘energetic geometry’ is born out of the criticism that Euclidean geometry is static, or ‘without a time dimension’ and thus is unable to ‘exist in the reality of physical time.’”
- Daniel López-Pérez

what are the benefits of invention over innovation?

greenfield, adam, radical technologies (
Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life
Adam Greenfield


This book is an essential guide for the technologies which are transforming our life and an invitation to rethink the post-human era. Author reveals the hidden cost of our engagement as human beings with these technologies in order to help us navigate to a better future.

‘‘And finally we forget to ask whether, in our aspiration to overcome the human, we are discarding a gift we already have at hand and barely know what to do with.”
- Adam Greenfield
p. 309
Internet of Things (IoT)

Since 1982

This concept is a network that interconnects physical objects using the internet. The IoT powers objects to collect information and communicate this information through global networks without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. This includes smart cities, autonomous cars, or self stocking refrigerators.

…as a digital network of existing inventions, applied to the digital activities within everyday life

Internet of things.jpg
The Big Data Challenge


This diagram shows some of the main challenges to big data as the volume of data continues to grow and the possibilities of what can be done become more. 

…as a highly systematic organisational method for storing data – not sure

Artificial inteligence and deep learning
Lee, Kai-Fu, AI Superpowers (Houghton Mi
AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the New World Order
Kai-Fu Lee
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

This book discusses the capability of artificial intelligence to impact different aspects of our lives, particularly the economic realm and job market. Lee encourages countries with technological power to take responsibility and search for solutions.

“Our AI future will be created by us, and it will reflect the choices we make and the actions we take. In that process, I hope we will look deep within ourselves and to each other for the values and wisdom that can guide us.”

- Kai-Fu Lee
p. 56

what is the correlation between progress and inventiveness/invention?

Tourism 4.0

This diagram shows the key enabling technologies from Industry 4.0 that can be used in transforming tourism as part of the Tourism 4.0 initiative, which sees collaboration as the key to tourism for the future.​

…as an innovative application

Society 5.0

This diagram shows a proposal for a fourth industrial revolution: Society 5.0. The idea behind Society 5.0 is to create solutions that will make people’s lives more comfortable, making use of intelligent systems such as The Internet of things, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence.​

…as a digital network of existing inventions, applied to everyday life

The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era
Jeremy Rifkin

This book discusses the role of labor in the modern information-based era. It predicts vast changes on the work market and convicts a vast number of occupations to virtual distinction.

“In the new world that’s emerging, government is likely to play a much reduced role in the affairs of commerce and a far greater role in the civil society. Together, these two geographically bound sectors can begin to exert tremendous political pressure on corporations, forcing some of the gains of the new commerce into communities.”
- Jeremy Rifkin
p. 295

how can ordinary objects be appropriated in new ways?

The Algae Platform • Atelier Luma & Studio Klarenbeek & Dros • Arles, France • Since 2007

This project explores the growing of micro- and macro-algae locally, and the production of fully bio-sourced materials that can replace fossil oil-based plastics.The Algae Platform explores the new connections between experts and various disciplines and between makers and users and local raw resources, through stimulating the creation of knowledge and expertise on algae.

…by functioning as an incubator for cross-disciplinary research and development of algae as an alternative resource for production of goods

The Growing Pavilion • Pascal Leboucq, Erik Klarenbeek • Dutch Design Week, Nederlands • 2019

This Project consists of a temporary pavilion built entirely out of biomaterials like mushroom mycelium and agricultural waste. Only a waterproof coating is not local, from Mexico, but for that natural.

…by applying mycelium growth patterns towards the production of architectural surfaces

Mae Ling Lokko _ Carbocycene.jfif
Carbocycene • Mae-Ling Lokko, Luma Foundation • Arles, France • Since 2019

This project focuses on the upcycling of lignocellulosic waste resources in the Camargue region using mycelium technology.These prototypes highlight the exceptional qualities of these materials for the use in architecture and design. The project aims to engage and connect upcycling designer and producer communities forming a larger collective purpose.


…by developing bio-plastics based on food waste

Screenshot 2019-12-04 at 19.20.34.png
Gross Ideas: Tales of Tomorrow's Architecture
Edwina Attlee, Phineas Harper and Maria Smith
Architecture Foundation

This book consists of short stories written by multiple authors, in which they try to picture the role of architecture in the future. The stories blur the distinction between real and imaginary and create a new relationship with space.


“We allow the structures as they are. Small fire inside, a little stone to build chimney and hearth. vegetables planted in the soil outside, fruit plucked carefully from trees. Fish from the river. The soil folded over with manure, peelings. We allow careful walking, careful treatment. Daily devotions. Once a year, the placation.”
- Sophie Mackintosh
p. 11
But beautiful • Erwin Wagenhofer • Germany • 2019

This project consists of a movie centered on the alternative realities and ways of living possible nowadays. A collection of inspiring examples from different backgrounds.

…by showcasing examples of self-initiated inventions based on humankind’s willingness and ability of change


case studies of nanotourism:


further aspects of inventive characteristics identified in the above case study:

Offer a place for one’s memory 


The Mural is a critical reaction, considering the time and place. It holds a lot of people’s memory, brings moments of different emotions back and gives new perspective of belonging and home. 

Create social values as a landmark 


The project was completed in war-time when people needed art the most. Creating this kind of art shares love and peace. People exchange books at the Mural and plan activities, all the while raising awareness of the consumption of recyclable materials.

Inspire similar ideas and encourage potentials 

The artists used old ceramic, broken glasses and everything that can be recycled to create similar Murals in different locations with different sets of values. Recycling has no infrastructure in Syria, so this project was welcomed by everyone who wanted to reuse old stuff and find a purpose for it.


further aspects of inventive characteristics identified in the above case study:


Raise awareness to this valued resource that was once prevalent in the area. Create a platform for meaningful experiences and value exchanges by educating the visitors. React to the existing mention of Salt in Town.

Re-localising economies & Co-creating 

Local specificities enable to rebuild a local economy by co-creating a new method of salt production. Salt making device for personal use, display, or businesses to provide the opportunity for the user to become the promoter- salt keepers.

Build up community network 

Start building up a community network and capacity through the whole city and everyone. Build a ‘Salt Collective’ in local context-time and place.


further aspects of inventive characteristics identified in the above case study:

Recycled temporary sleeping cabinets 

Reacting to the current necessity by using a different method; using the trash of the city and creating a new way of hotel rooms. 

Participate to give a better understanding 

Participating the creation of a new idea and experiencing from both perspectives; as provider and user.

Transition of a space 


Conversion of an urban space to public space by creating temporary sleeping cabinets. Building a community network by changing usage of space. 


extracted patterns:

Analysis of current situation:


Framework for innovation:


Self-sufficient innovation:


Observation of the necessities in a particular context indicate a set of corresponding potentials.

Conditions of  the  given context stimulate locally-driven processes of innovation towards development and new values.

Long-term stakeholders continue to innovate with respect to the social, environmental and economic limits of growth within its operational context.