Re-Thinking Tourism

for a Planet in Crisis

produced with local support and supporting locals




1. relating or restricted to a particular area or one’s neighbourhood (in technical use)


2. relating to a particular region or part, or to each of any number of these


community, district, neighbourhood, regional, city, town, municipal, provincial, village, domestic, internal, home, national


nearby, near, at hand, close by, in the area confined, restricted, contained, limited, localized


circumscribed, delimited, specific, particular


an inhabitant of a particular area or neighbourhood



local person, local speces, native, inhabitant, resident, citizen




1. relating to the whole world 


2. relating to or encompassing the whole of something, or of a group of things


3. operating or applying through the whole of a file, program (in computing)


worldwide, international, world, intercontinental, universal


omnipresent, overall, general, all-inclusive, all-encompassing, encyclopedic, exhaustive, blanket


broad, wide-ranging, far- reaching, extensive, sweeping, cross-disciplinary, interdisciplinary,



O'Neill, Paul, Wilson, Mick, Steeds, Luc
LO 1
LO 2
Oaza, Project Ilica Vol. 1 (Oaza, 2017).
MacKay-Lyons, Brian, Local Architecture
LO 3
Boelen, Jan, Sacchetti, Vera, Design as
WhatsApp Image 2020-05-07 at 11.30.24
Noma Guide To Fermentation (Foundations
Madein Platform
Countryside Reloaded _ BIO50
Barboza Freyre _ Water Ecosystems

through what means can local projects impact global prospects?

The Mcdonaldization of the World
George Ritzer


This concept is a so-called social phenomenon which happens when a society and its organization or instituts are following similar rules and guidelines as fast food chains.

…as a smaller-scale response towards the colonisation of larger organisation

‘Starbucksization’ and ‘McDonaldization’
Local vs Non-Local


The diagram shows in a comparison who (local or non-local) is processing food in a better way, in points of Variety, Production, Ripeness and Storage & Transportation.

…as the hyper production and consumption with and within contextual constraints

MacKay-Lyons, Brian, Local Architecture
Local Architecture: Place, Craft, and Community
Brian MacKay-Lyons
Princeton Architectural Press

This book explores the idea of place-based architecture along the notion of Critical Regionalism as a form of resistance to globalism and the International Style. The book annotates examples of projects from around the world, deeply connecting the architecture to the site and surrounding culture.

“The call for an ecological ethics, lifestyle, and mindset of sustainability is surely the most important force of change in the field of architecture since the breakthrough of modernity a century ago. Architectural history is seen as a succession of varying stylistic canons, but today’s challenge calls for a new understanding of the very essence of architecture...goals and processes, aesthetics and performance, form and function, rationality and beauty, artistic objectives and ethics, and finally, of ourselves as children of Mother Earth.”
- Juhani Pallasmaa
p. 31

MIL Centro • Studio Rafael Freyre • Moray, Peru • Since 2017

This project is a restaurant renovation that works in close relation with materials, climate, altitude and cultural setting with a focus on the artisanal traditions of the place.

…by reinterpreting local traditions in collaboration with the local community

Building Upon Building
Jantje Engels and Marius Grootveld
Nai010 Publishers


This book exhibits the designs of 45 contemporary European architects for a fictional expansion on an existing building, taking into account the design principles of the original structure. The resulting dialogue between past and present posits architecture as evolution rather than revolution, reinstating the value of context in the process.

“We do not perceive the loss of a ‘normal’ city or the overly individual present to be a reason for formal building on the original context. This thesis seems to be as naive as modernistic isolation from history. We are interested in and intrigued by ambiguity, easy unease and a certain tension to which flirting with the past and the present leads; we like the game it offers.”
- re:architekti
p. 110

how can the invisible fragilities within the local context be navigated?

Noma: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine
René Redzepi
Phaidon Press

This book provides insight into the food, philosophy and creativity of René Redzepi, a Danish chef and co-owner of the two-Michelin star restaurant Noma in the Christianshavn neighborhood of Copenhagen, Denmark. Widely credited with re-inventing Nordic cuisine, Redzepi has heightened the culinary philosophy of seasonally and regionally sourced sustainable ingredients to an unprecedented level through unrelenting creativity, craftsmanship and an inimitable and innate knowledge of the produce of his Nordic terroir.

“We are constantly confronted with a trivialized sensory world, largely the product of banal commercialization. The makers of that world aim for 'safe' sensations, selling experiences with which their target group can immediately identify. As a result, the individual's imaginative ability is levelled off to become the same for everybody. The senses are blunted.”
- René Redzepi
p. 7
Noma Guide To Fermentation (Foundations
Foundations of Flavor: The Noma Guide to Fermentation
René Redzepi

This book amalgamates a collection of recipes that focus on fermentation techniques in cuisine. Fermentation is one of the fundamental food preservation methods in the culinary world, and therefore also an important element for the team at Noma.


“Chang was referring to the largely unseen world of mold, yeast, and bacteria responsible for fermentation. They are omnipresent, transcending countless cultures and culinary traditions. What Chang was saying was that the microbes indigenous to any given region will always have their say in the flavor of the final product, in the same way that soil, weather, and geography affect wine.”

- René Redzepi

p. 3

On Eating Insects: Essays, Stories and Recipes
Joshua Evans, Roberto Flore and Michael Bom Frøst
Phaidon Press


This book looks at the fascinating food trend insects through the knowledge and practice of Nordic Food Lab. Through a holistic approach, On Eating Insects presents essays on the cultural, political, and ecological significance of eating insects, alongside stories from the field, tasting notes, and recipes by Nordic Food Lab.

“Many people believe that adding insects to our diets is the future of food. I prefer to reflect and put a dish from my ancestors under the spotlight.”
- Roberto Flore
p. 266
Cook it Raw • Alessandro Porcelli • Copenhagen, Denmark • 2009

This project involves the finest chefs from all around the world, gathering every year in a new location. The chefs are required to explore and analyze the local food production as well as explore new possibilities in the food system and finally create new dishes with local products.

…by rediscovering the social, economic and environmental conditions of a specific environment through the consumption of food

how might an ethical approach to locality be established?

The Ethics of Sightseeing
Dean MacCannell
University of California Press


This book brings to light how the means of attraction within the context of tourism can carry unintended consequences. MacCannell identifies and overcomes common obstacles to ethical sightseeing, revealing the productive potential of travel to penetrate the collective unconscious and gain character, insight, and connection to the world.​​

‘‘Does my presence in this strange land help or harm the people or the natural systems I encounter here? Are they joyful about my presence, indifferent, or hostile? Do they seek cynically to manipulate me? And even if their welcome is genuine, does my presence ultimately harm them, their progeny, or their land in ways neither they nor I yet discern?’’
- Dean MacCannell
p. 4
Staged authenticity


Staged authenticity is a term used by tourism and cultural resource management researchers to explain the way that traditional cultures are presented to foreigners. In its essence it is a cultural practice, activity or event that is faked for the purpose of the tourists.​​


…as the non-filtered expression of local customs and realities

Airbnb • Joe Gebbia, Brian Chesky • since 2008

This project consists of an online platform where private hosts can offer sleep options inside their own home as an alternative to hotels and hostels to interested guests.

…by providing an international platform for the exchange of global visitors and local inhabitants through locally-specific experiences

where can infrastructure reflect local practices and means of production?

Oaza, Project Ilica Vol. 1 (Oaza, 2017).
Project Ilica Vol. 1

This book is a research project into design practice, focusing on the different craftsmen and knowledge-holders of the street Ilica in Zagreb. An overview of the framework, as well as all practices within this framework, are presented to the effect of promoting self-sustainability within a local community and the continuity of local identity.

‘‘Today the economic system and the governmental, democratic systems are in crisis. The powers are shifting and we have to develop new relations between persons as consumers, producers and distributors. We have to think about new systems of exchanging values between these parties in our society. These values can be tactile, tangible and by and through these values we have to build new, currently non-existent bridges between all possible powers in a society.’’
p. 2
Parts Unknown • Anthony Bourdain • CNN • 2013-2018


This project consists of a travel and food show in which Anthony Bourdain visits small remote communities around the world and explores their culture and traditional cuisine.

…by documenting experiencnes between visitors and locals through local culture and cuisine

MADE IN Platform • OAZA • Austria, Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia • since 2014

This project is a research, design and heritage platform that proposes new collaborative practices and knowledge exchange between traditional craftspeople and contemporary designers. This is done through workshops, residencies and research.

…by seeking new forms of cultural production and knowledge exchange between locals craftsmen and visiting designers

Boelen, Jan, Sacchetti, Vera, Design as
Design as a Tool for Transition: The Atelier Luma Approach
Jan Boelen Vera Sacchetti
Studio Folder

This book catalogues the projects from the Atelier Luma, located in the municipality of Arles, in the Provence region of southern France. The projects derive and develop through site-specificity, redefining the process of design as a tool for transition.​

‘‘Atelier Luma creates new and sustainable ways of using the natural and cultural resources of the bioregion. From agricultural waste recycling to the promotion of traditional craft, as well as the facilitation of encounters between audacious creators, Atelier Luma develops local solutions to global issues. [ ] Central to their approach are the greater implementation of circular economic practices, a further engagement with nature and community alike and the use of design as a tool for transition.”
- Vera Sacchetti
p. 25
Léa-Catherine Szacka
Columbia Books on Architecture and the City

​This book traces the change in the field of architecture since the first iteration of the Venice Architecture Biennale in 1980. Becoming an integral part of the discipline, the apparatus of the biennial/triennial has altered the contours of architecture thought in its format, space and content. 

“But it was more than only research. It's also about projecting, throwing, speculating and communicating. Maybe no one really knows what the word research means anymore as it has become a bit overused and confused. But let’s say a project, even an architectural project. Yet we were convinced that to make a biennial into a project it was imperative to undo many of the conventions of a biennial.”
- Beatriz Colomina
and Mark Wigley
p. 87

how can a project work to benefit the local inhabitants?

Million Donkey Hotel • Feld72 • Prata Sannita, Italy • 2006

This project takes action in a small town near Naples in order to combat the constant emptying and falling into ruins of the old city. It uses the abandoned houses as hotel rooms, bathrooms and amphitheaters.

…by establishing a collaborative operational strategy of reviving unused spaces within the local community 

Albergo diffuso


This concept in hospitality intends on reviving small historic italian villages and town centres of common tourist tracks. It is a hotel which is not located in a single building but rather several small buildings in a small community. ​​

…as a decentralised form of collaboration

Albergo Diffuso (Dispersed hotel) - Ital
O'Neill, Paul, Wilson, Mick, Steeds, Luc
The Curatorial Conundrum: What to Study? What to Research? What to Practice?
Edited by Paul O'Neill, Mick Wilson and Lucy Steeds
The MIT Press

This book speculates on the future of curatorial practice in wake of its expansion, across institutions of both education and research. The Curatorial Conundrum looks critically at the burgeoning field of curatorship, with its politics of production, display and distribution, and seeks out its potential for collaborative, innovative, progressive practice.

“If we all agree that we are living in a world in crisis, we must also concede that the contours of this crisis are almost impossible to define. Connections may multiply, but many borders—geopolitical, economic, social, and environmental—persist, and even appear to intensify. We inhabit a space where boundaries are at the same time shared and divided, and we are entangled in a complex web of both exchanges and oppositions.”
- Mélanie Bouteloup
p. 119

Water Ecosystems • Ana Teresa Barboza & Rafael Freyre • MAC, Lima, Peru • 2019

This project is an installation combining art, design and crafts in an exploration of water and its symbolic value.  

…by narrating the multi-layered relationship of local communities with the issue of local water scarcity through the use of locally-specific materials and craftspeople


case studies of nanotourism:


further aspects of local characteristics identified in the above case study:

Visiting Ilica street


Understanding the project and raise awareness about mass production and especially products from craftsmen and attach importance to quality.

Interacting with local craftsmen and shop owners


For better exchange between craftsman and participant workshops can be attended. Products from the brand and collection under the title Made in Ilica can be purchased.

Co-creating a new local product



After or in a workshop you are able to produce your own product with local materials and the new local knowledge you achieved through the process.


further aspects of local characteristics identified in the above case study:

Arriving in KSEVT / Vitanje

Arrive to KSEVT or Vitanje for Food Odyssey. Discover the local surrounding and KSEVT.

Visiting the exhibition of KSEVT 



Visit and observe the exhibition. Understand the meaning, reasons, approach and the questioning of the project.

Engage with the site-specific dining experience 

Take a part in the dining experience. Eat, drink, experience the project and local goods. Communicate with the creators and actively share ideas.


further aspects of local characteristics identified in the above case study:

Visiting the loft market


Going there, checking out the counters, observing and reading about the project.

Interacting with locals 

Communicating with the locals, buying the locally made product, learning about their way of producing and craftsmanship.

Acquiring a stand

Reaching JIN and having a counter in the loft market, selling own locally produced goods in the market every saturday.


extracted patterns:

Local awareness and empathy:


Participation in local production:

(short term)

New values and invention:


Empathizing with local communities through engagement and appreciation.

Co-creation engages local resources both material and immaterial, supporting local methods of production.

Local knowledge proliferates with local invention and further promotion.