Re-Thinking Tourism

for a Planet in Crisis


community oriented and relating to people




 1. relating to society or its organization


2. needing companionship and therefore best suited to living in communities


3. (of an insect) living together in organized communities, typically with different castes, as ants, bees, wasps, and termites do.


4. (of a mammal) living together in groups, typically in a hierarchical system with complex communication.



communal, community, community-based, collective, group, civil, civic, public, societal


general, popular, recreational, entertainment, amusement, leisure. gregarious, organized, civilized, interactional


endemic, pandemic


an informal social gathering, especially one organized by the members of a particular club or group

party, gathering, social gathering, social occasion, social event, social function, function, get-together, celebration, reunion, festivity, jamboree, reception, at-home, soirée



 1. not seeking the company of others


2. causing annoyance and disapproval in others



antisocial, objectionable, offensive, beyond the pale, unacceptable, unsocial, asocial, distasteful; disruptive, disorderly, lawless, rebellious; sociopathic


misanthropic, unwilling to mix with other people, unfriendly, uncommunicative, unforthcoming, reserved, withdrawn, retiring, reclusive


offensive, unpleasant, disagreeable, distasteful, displeasing, unacceptable, off-putting, undesirable, obnoxious


Types of collaboration
Weak vs strong networks
SO 2
Morton, Timothy, Humankind (Verso, 2017)
Haig, Matt, Notes on a Nervous Planet (c
Sennett, Richard, Together: The Rituals,
Thomas Saraceno _ On Air
Nature vs nurture
Social currency as a new form of exchang
SO 3
Eliasson, Olafur, Studio Olafur Eliasson
WhatsApp Image 2020-05-07 at 11.30.24
Screenshot 2020-05-02 at 23.15.51
SO 1
Joseph Beuys _ 7000 Oaks
Slow show luma

how can the complex systems of society be grasped?

Luhmann theory of society
Niklas Luhmann
Theory of Society, Volume 1

This work posits systems theory as societal theory. Luhmann differentiates social systems, as systems of communication, according to rigorous analysis of a range of communication media. The apotheosis of the social system, through a reduction of complexity, is a processing of meaning.

…as a system of communication 

Niklas Luhmann - Typology of systems dia
Weak vs. strong networks​

This diagram, a comparison between the weak and the strong network. It characterises the former as a set of unintegrated individuals, if bound only to a singularity, and the latter as a complex lattice of integrated individuals held to network by multiple relationships.

…as a system of links and intensities of relationships between entities

Weak vs strong networks.jpg
The Tourist
Dean MacCannell
University of California Press

This book is an examination of the phenomenon of tourism through a social theory lens that encompasses discussions of authenticity, high and low culture, and the construction of social reality. In a world of fake authenticity, it is no longer possible to seek for a real experience unless the tourist understands what ‘real’ is.

“The modern disruption of real life and the simultaneous emergence of a fascination for the ‘real life’ of others are the outward signs of an important social redefinition of the categories ‘truth’ and ‘reality’ now taking place.”
- Dean MacCannell
p. 91
Graph of tourist Desire/Structure.
Dean MacCannell, 2015


The diagram is showing four seperate zones and its separation and order into touristic structures.​​

…as a structure and management of individual and collective desires


what are the points of social intersection in everyday life?

Maslows hierarchy of needs

This theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation, represents the universal basic needs of society as the base upon which psychological needs of acquired emotions and subsequently self-fulfillment needs of being arise. The hierarchy of needs, pyramidal in form, works towards the apotheosis of self-actualisation.

…as a structure and management of individual and collective needs

Nature vs Nurture


This diagram notions towards the widespread debate of nature vs. nurture. In its simplification, the psychological approach demarcates 'nature' as all factors genetically inherited, and 'nurture' as all variables of the environment, with both binaries having strong influence over the development of human psychology.

…as a biologically or culturally conditioned form of behaviour

Nature vs nurture.jpg
Attraction diagrammes
Dean Maccannell

These diagrams posit the tourist as the subject (S) and the attraction (a) as the object or symbolic representation of the other (O). The subject-other relation, borrowed from Lacan, is mediated in all three modalities by the attraction, representing synecdochally the desire of the tourist for the other. The attraction as ego reinforcement results in the exclusion of the other; the attraction as instruction about desire results in the alteration of the subject while the other remains elusive; the attraction as vehicle towards the other results in the acceleration of the subject towards the other.

…as a biologically or culturally conditioned drive stimulated through attractions

Screenshot 2020-05-02 at 23.15.51.png

how can authentic social life be recovered in the age of the media?/how can we counter the loss of authentic social life?

Eliasson, Olafur, Studio Olafur Eliasson
Studio Olafur Eliasson: The Kitchen
Olafur Eliasson
Phaidon Press

​This book is a collection of recipes that result from years of sharing lunch in the Studio Olafur Eliasson, where food was always an important experience for the creative process. Celebrating the communal spirit of cooking and creativity, Studio Olafur Eliasson places social value on nourishment as a source of creative inspiration and communal discussion. 

“We were thinking about plants and how water and nutrients enter and travel through them, about microorganisms, worms, and composting—so we dedicated the exhibition space to micro-organisms and our awareness of them.”
- Asako Iwama
and Lauren Maurer
p. 348
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
Erwin Goffman


This book in social anthropology uses Goffman's dramaturgical analysis approach, in the imagery of the theatre, to portray the importance of human social interaction. Goffman traces the similarities between the kinds of acts that people put on in their daily life and theatrical performances.

“Defining social role as the enactment of rights and duties attached to a given status, we can say that a social role will involve one or more parts and that each of these different parts may be presented by the performer on a series of occasions to the same kinds of audience or to an audience of the same persons.”
- Erwin Goffmann
p. 9
Haig, Matt, Notes on a Nervous Planet (c
Notes on a Nervous Planet
Matt Haig
Canongate uk

This book notes that while the world is developing fast, we humans are evolving slow; this fact makes us nervous. To stay healthy in the economy where some are able to profit from those negative emotions, and to recognise the basic human needs amidst the fast-paced lifestyle which neglects and subordinates them, becomes increasingly difficult yet imperative.​

“The problem is that each age poses a unique and complex set of challenges. And while many things have improved, not all things have. Inequalities still remain. And some new problems have arisen. People often live in fear, or feel inadequate, or even suicidal, when they have —materially— more than ever.”
- Matt Haig
p. 26

what types of currencies define our relationships in society?

Social currency

This diagram redefines the value of currency as innately monetary to innately social. To answer the question of what we exchange in order to balance status differences, the traditional model of coinage is re-labelled with the concepts of love, acceptance, attention, acknowledgement, praise and help

…as a form of exchange through presence and active participation

Social currency as a new form of exchang
Six Thinking Hats: An Essential Approach to Business Management
Edward de Bono
Little, Brown and Company


This book presents the idea of parallel thinking, a method for groups to plan thinking processes. This method involves dissecting the thinking process into six parallel processes each with a different way of looking at things.

“For the most part, the thrust of Western thinking has been the ”black hat” with an emphasis on critical thinking and caution. It prevents mistakes, excesses and nonsenses.”
- Edward de Bono
p. 12
Social Design: Participation and Empowerment
Angeli Sachs
Lars Müller Publishers


This book, based on dialogue and participation within the discipline of social design, addresses the disparity in resources, means of production, and prospects for the future by relying on new exchanges between individuals, civil society, government, and business as equal partners. Topics are explained with case studies in their eponymous six chapters: Urban Space and Landscape, Living, Education, Work, Migration, Production, Networks and Environment. ​

“Sustainable urban as well as rural development must take social, economic, and ecological aspects into account. it must provide all population groups with secure access to infrastructure and social facilities. and it must give them the freedom to identify with and help shape their own environment.”
- Claudia Banz,
Michael Krohn and Angeli Sachs
p. 31
Personal Space Diagram​

This diagram posits four abstract concepts of relationships—family or lover, friend, stranger and public relations—in the Euclidean space of increasing distances. Immediately encircling the subject is the field of “intimate distance,” followed radially by “personal”, “social” and “public” distances.

…as a negotiation of the proximity and limits of personal space within specific contexts


how can we adapt to a world developing fast?

Slow Show • Dimitri Chamblas, Luma Arles • Parc des Ateliers, Arles, France • 2019


This project consists of a workshop and performance in Parc des Ateliers in Arles, where performers and locals have the chance to physically interact with one another in extremely slow actions.


…by stimulating an alternative physical practice through a collective performance within a specific context

These Associations • Tino Sehgal • Tate Modern, London, UK • 2012

This project was a temporary performance in the Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern with a group of performers constructing different situations at all times. ​ stimulating unscripted, non-conditioned encounters through movement between people

These Associations • Tino Sehgal • Tate Modern, London, UK • 2012


This project was a temporary performance in the Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern with a group of performers constructing different situations at all times.

…by designing a social metaphor through a united effort in pursuit of a common goal

Sennett, Richard, Together: The Rituals,
Together: The Rituals, Pleasures and Politics of Cooperation
Richard Sennett
Yale University Press

 This book explores the concept of cooperation amidst the intensely tribal, competitive, and self-interested cultures we inhabit. The tendency to avoid engaging with others unlike ourselves presents an urgent challenge for globalised society; Together brings to light the capacity for cooperation embedded within human nature, and how it can work to help our complex society prosper.​ 

“Complex societies like our own depend on workers flowing across borders; contain different ethnicities, races and religions; generate diverging ways of sexual and family life. To force all this complexity into a single cultural mould would be politically repressive and tell a lie about ourselves.”
- Richard Sennett
p. 4
7000 Oaks • Joseph Beuys • Kassel, Germany • 1982

This project consists of 7000 basalt stones piled up in front of the Fridericianum Museum in Kassel, with the idea that the pile would shrink each time a tree was planted. Every stone was to be placed between a newly planted tree.


…by socially engineering a ritual in the public pursuit of an improved urban condition

how can collaboration establish social bonds?

Morton, Timothy, Humankind (Verso, 2017)
Timothy Morton


This book raises the question of what it means to be human, exploring the boundaries between life and non-life in the age of technology. Object-oriented philosopher Morton calls for solidarity and a network of kindness with humans and non-humans.​

“Economics is how lifeforms organize their enjoyment. That’s why ecology used to be called the economy of nature . When you think of it like that, what the discipline of economics excludes in nonhuman beings - the ways we and they organise enjoyment with reference to one another. If we want to organize communist enjoyment, we are going to have to include nonhuman beings.”
- Timothy Morton
Types of relationships

This diagram compares three types of relationships: the commensal, the parasitic and the mutualistic. Commensalism is defined by the interaction in which one party gains benefits while the other is neither benefited nor harmed; with parasitism, this benefit is to the harm or expense of the other; and with mutualism, both parties benefit from each other.

…as types of relationships and dependencies 

Types of collaboration

This diagram contrasts the clear delineation of the disciplinary in their separate entities to the complete dissolution of the transdisciplinary in its gradiency. The multidisciplinary lends its structure from the disciplinary, while incorporating vectors of exchange, while the interdisciplinary begins the process of dissolving boundaries and overlaying the entities.

…as types of collaboration

Types of collaboration.jpg
ON AIR • Thomas Saraceno • Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France • 2018

This project is an exhibition revealing the strength of various entities floating in the air, from radio waves to dust, and explores our relationship with them through new encounters.

…by exemplifying a collective choreography between human and non-human life forms


case studies of nanotourism:


further aspects of social characteristics identified in the above case study:

Getting in touch

Getting to know about local behaviors - through the people at the place - through the temporary installation (pink boards & description of how to do the traditional greeting)


Tourists & locals are willing to connect with each other and are ready to experience the intimate greeting


by repeating the newly learned behaviour/greeting you internalise the social aspect


further aspects of social characteristics identified in the above case study:


When receiving or buying the postcard, the project and the process to go through to experience the cliffs as a locals is explained


Openness to experience the ultimate “local” relationship with the cliffs.


Newly learned knowledge about the special relationship between the inhabitants and the cliffs is shared- leading to awareness and routine


further aspects of social characteristics identified in the above case study:


Routes working as useful instructions by following the specific routes, developed with the help of the local community, the experience is stimulating social reactions between the visitors and inhabitants of the City of Dead.



Travellers are willing to experience slow tourism by respecting cultural differences and connecting with the locals

Change behaviour

Integration of newly learned understanding, and respectful behaviour towards the locals into social behaviour

extracted patterns:


Awareness of social codes:


Local cultures, histories, lifestyles, behaviours and relationships are experienced and learned through social encounters with individuals, collectives, or various media.

Framework for social interaction:

(short term)

Paradigmatic shift in ritual:


Respecting the given social conditions, a framework for interaction is formulated.

Through established and repeated interaction, new social values and rituals are integrated into local social codes.